This is a partial list of studies that directly demonstrate that computerized cognitive training can improve cognition. There are many other such studies; this list is a sampling.

Funghi, Giulia, Claudia Meli, Arianna Cavagna, Lisa Bisoffi, Francesca Zappini, Costanza Papagno, and Alessandra Dodich. 2024. “The Social and Cognitive Online Training (SCOT) Project: A Digital Randomized Controlled Trial to Promote Socio-Cognitive Well-Being in Older Adults.” Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 122 (July): 105405. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2024.105405.
Aksu, Serkan, Aprinda Indahlastari, Andrew O’Shea, Michael Marsiske, Ronald Cohen, Gene E. Alexander, Steven T. DeKosky, et al. 2024. “Facilitation of Working Memory Capacity by Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: A Secondary Analysis from the Augmenting Cognitive Training in Older Adults (ACT) Study.” GeroScience, May. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11357-024-01205-0.
Merzbach, Viviane, Matthew Jewiss, Adrian Scruton, and Dan Gordon. 2024. “The Effects of Prescribed Physical and Cognitive Exercise on Life Satisfaction, Self-Efficacy and Mood States in Adults with Down Syndrome: The MinDSets Study.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 21 (5): 610. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph21050610.
Lee, Hyun Kyu, Chandramallika Basak, Sarah-Jane Grant, Nicholas R Ray, Paulina A Skolasinska, Chris Oehler, Shuo Qin, et al. 2024. “The Effects of Computerized Cognitive Training in Older Adults’ Cognitive Performance and Biomarkers of Structural Brain Aging.” The Journals of Gerontology: Series B, April, gbae075. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbae075.
Fiszdon, Joanna M., Kaicheng Wang, Karen Lê, Lori Parente, and Jimmy Choi. 2024. “Efficacy of Cognitive Training on Cognition, Symptoms and Functioning: Impact of Motivation and Attendance.” Schizophrenia Research: Cognition 37 (April): 100313. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scog.2024.100313.
Molina, Juan L., Yash B. Joshi, John A. Nungaray, Joyce Sprock, Mouna Attarha, Bruno Biagianti, Michael L. Thomas, Neal R. Swerdlow, and Gregory A. Light. 2024. “Early Auditory Processing Abnormalities Alter Individual Learning Trajectories and Sensitivity to Computerized Cognitive Training in Schizophrenia.” Psychological Medicine, April, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291724000783.
Miley, Kathleen, Michael V. Bronstein, Sisi Ma, Hyunkyu Lee, Michael F. Green, Joseph Ventura, Christine I. Hooker, Mor Nahum, and Sophia Vinogradov. 2024. “Trajectories and Predictors of Response to Social Cognition Training in People with Schizophrenia: A Proof-of-Concept Machine Learning Study.” Schizophrenia Research 266 (April): 92–99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2024.02.027.
Jung, Miyeon, Asa B. Smith, Bruno Giordani, David G. Clark, Irmina Gradus-Pizlo, Kelly L. Wierenga, Kittie Reid Lake, and Susan J. Pressler. 2024. “Computerized Cognitive Training and 24-Month Mortality in Heart Failure.” Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing 39 (2): E51. https://doi.org/10.1097/JCN.0000000000001023.
Eaton, Andrew D., Jenny Hui, Marvelous Muchenje, Taylor Kon, Kate Murzin, Soo Chan Carusone, Nuelle Novik, Adria Quigley, Kristina Kokorelias, and Francisco Ibáñez-Carrasco. 2024. “Adapting Cognitive Remediation Group Therapy Online: Focus Groups with People Aging with HIV.” Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care 23 (March): 23259582241242704. https://doi.org/10.1177/23259582241242703.
Hardcastle, Cheshire, Jessica N. Kraft, Hanna K. Hausman, Andrew O’Shea, Alejandro Albizu, Nicole D. Evangelista, Emanuel M. Boutzoukas, et al. 2024. “Learning Ratio Performance on a Brief Visual Learning and Memory Test Moderates Cognitive Training Gains in Double Decision Task in Healthy Older Adults.” GeroScience, March. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11357-024-01115-1.
Hausman, Hanna K., Gene E. Alexander, Ronald Cohen, Michael Marsiske, Steven T. DeKosky, Georg A. Hishaw, Andrew O’Shea, et al. 2024. “TDCS Reduces Depression and State Anxiety Symptoms in Older Adults from the Augmenting Cognitive Training in Older Adults Study (ACT).” Brain Stimulation, March. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2024.02.021.
Vance, David E., Andres Azuero, Michael Vinikoor, Julie K. Schexnayder, Frank Puga, Benjamin Galatzan, Jun Y. Byun, et al. 2024. “Cognitive Intra-Individual Variability as an Outcome or Moderator of Speed of Processing Training in Aging Adults with HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder: A Secondary Data Analysis of a 2-Year Longitudinal Randomized Clinical Trial.” Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics Plus, February, 100012. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aggp.2024.100012.
Harvey, Philip D., Courtney Dowell-Esquivel, Justin E. Macchiarelli, Alejandro Martinez, Peter Kallestrup, and Sara J. Czaja. 2024. “Early Prediction of Mastery of a Computerized Functional Skills Training Program in Participants with Mild Cognitive Impairment.” International Psychogeriatrics, February, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1041610224000115.
Kraft, Jessica N., Aprinda Indahlastari, Emanuel M. Boutzoukas, Hanna K. Hausman, Cheshire Hardcastle, Alejandro Albizu, Andrew O’Shea, et al. 2024. “The Impact of a TDCS and Cognitive Training Intervention on Task-Based Functional Connectivity.” GeroScience, January. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11357-024-01077-4.
Lee, Pai-Lin, Chih-Kun Huang, Yi-Yi Chen, Hui-Hsiang Chang, Chun-Hua Cheng, Yu-Chih Lin, and Chia-Li Lin. 2024. “Enhancing Cognitive Function in Older Adults through Processing Speed Training: Implications for Cognitive Health Awareness.” Healthcare 12 (5): 532. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12050532.
Huang, Alison R., George W. Rebok, Bonnielin K. Swenor, and Jennifer A. Deal. 2024. “Vision and Hearing Difficulty and Effects of Cognitive Training in Older Adults.” Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring 16 (2): e12537. https://doi.org/10.1002/dad2.12537.
Vance, David E., Pariya L. Fazeli, Andres Azuero, Jennifer S. Frank, Virginia G. Wadley, James L. Raper, Caitlin N. Pope, Alexandra Jacob, and Karlene K. Ball. 2024. “A 2-Year, Randomized, Clinical Trial Examining the Effects of Speed of Processing Cognitive Training on Quality-of-Life Indicators in Adults With HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder in Birmingham, Alabama: Results of the Think Fast Study.” Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 10.1097/JNC.0000000000000449. https://doi.org/10.1097/JNC.0000000000000449.
Bruno, Jennifer L., Jacob S. Shaw, and S. M. Hadi Hosseini. 2023. “Toward Personalized Cognitive Training in Older Adults: A Pilot Investigation of the Effects of Baseline Performance and Age on Cognitive Training Outcomes.” Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease: JAD, November. https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-230619.
Fisher, Melissa, Kevin Etter, Aimee Murray, Neelu Ghiasi, Kristin LaCross, Ian Ramsay, Ariel Currie, et al. 2023. “The Effects of Remote Cognitive Training Combined With a Mobile App Intervention on Psychosis: Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial.” Journal of Medical Internet Research 25 (1): e48634. https://doi.org/10.2196/48634.
Rebok, George W., Andrew Gellert, Norma B. Coe, Olivio J. Clay, Gail Wallace, Jeanine M. Parisi, Adrienne T. Aiken-Morgan, et al. 2023. “Effects of Cognitive Training on Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Dementias: The Moderating Role of Social Determinants of Health.” Journal of Aging and Health 35 (9_suppl): 40S-50S. https://doi.org/10.1177/08982643231203755.
Rebok, George W., Olivio J. Clay, Roland J. Thorpe, and Sherry L. Willis. 2023. “The ACTIVE Study: Association of Race and Social Determinants of Health (SDoH) with Long-Term Outcomes and Cognitive Training Effects.” Journal of Aging and Health 35 (9_suppl): 3S-10S. https://doi.org/10.1177/08982643231204931.
Clay, Olivio J., Karlene K. Ball, Katie M. Wheeler, Michael Crowe, Michael Marsiske, Lorraine T. Dean, Roland J. Thorpe, et al. 2023. “Evaluating Social Determinants of Health Domains and Their Predictive Validity within Black/African American and White Older Adults from the ACTIVE Trial.” Journal of Aging and Health 35 (9_suppl): 11S-18S. https://doi.org/10.1177/08982643221111205.
Owens, Joshua, Richard Jones, and Michael Marsiske. 2023. “The Effects of Occupational Complexity on Late Life Cognition in ACTIVE: Examining the Mediating and Moderating Effects of Race.” Journal of Aging and Health 35 (9_suppl): 95S-106S. https://doi.org/10.1177/08982643211038837.
Dean, Lorraine T., Shang-En Chung, Alden L. Gross, Olivio J. Clay, Sherry L. Willis, Michael Crowe, Ian M. McDonough, et al. 2023. “Does Consumer Credit Precede or Follow Changes in Cognitive Impairment Among Older Adults? An Investigation in the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) Trial.” Journal of Aging and Health 35 (9_suppl): 84S-94S. https://doi.org/10.1177/08982643221113715.
Rotblatt, Lindsay J., Adrienne T. Aiken-Morgan, Michael Marsiske, Ann L. Horgas, and Kelsey R. Thomas. 2023. “Do Associations Between Vascular Risk and Mild Cognitive Impairment Vary by Race?” Journal of Aging and Health 35 (9_suppl): 74S-83S. https://doi.org/10.1177/0898264320984357.
Aiken-Morgan, Adrienne T., Ian M. McDonough, Jeanine M. Parisi, Olivio J. Clay, Kelsey R. Thomas, Lindsay J. Rotblatt, Roland J. Thorpe, and Michael Marsiske. 2023. “Associations Between Body Mass Index and Cognitive Change in the ACTIVE Study: Variations by Race and Social Determinants of Health.” Journal of Aging and Health 35 (9_suppl): 59S-73S. https://doi.org/10.1177/08982643221109645.
Feger, Danielle M., Sherry L. Willis, Jennifer Deal, Lorraine T. Dean, and Alden L. Gross. 2023. “Disparities in First Instrumental Activity of Daily Living Difficulty between Black and White Older Adults: Findings from the Advanced Cognitive Training in Independent and Vital Elderly Study.” Journal of Aging and Health 35 (9_suppl): 51S-58S. https://doi.org/10.1177/08982643211023005.
Pope, Caitlin N., Katie M. Wheeler, Tyler R. Bell, Brooke E. Carroll, Lesley A. Ross, Michael Crowe, Shelia R. Black, Olivio J. Clay, and Karlene K. Ball. 2023. “Social and Neighborhood Context Moderates the Associations Between Processing Speed and Driving Mobility: A 10-Year Analysis of the ACTIVE Study.” Journal of Aging and Health 35 (9_suppl): 26S-39S. https://doi.org/10.1177/08982643231163907.
Ball, Karlene K., Olivio J. Clay, Jerri D. Edwards, Bernadette A. Fausto, Katie M. Wheeler, Cynthia Felix, and Lesley A. Ross. 2023. “Indicators of Crash Risk in Older Adults: A Longitudinal Analysis From the ACTIVE Study.” Journal of Aging and Health 35 (9_suppl): 19S-25S. https://doi.org/10.1177/08982643211031346.
Yeh, Ting-Ting, Ku-Chou Chang, Jiun-Jie Wang, Wei-Che Lin, and Ching-Yi Wu. 2023. “Neuroplastic Changes Associated With Hybrid Exercise-Cognitive Training in Stroke Survivors With Mild Cognitive Decline: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair 37 (9): 662–73. https://doi.org/10.1177/15459683231200220.
Montero-Odasso, Manuel, Guangyong Zou, Mark Speechley, Quincy J. Almeida, Teresa Liu-Ambrose, Laura E. Middleton, Richard Camicioli, et al. 2023. “Effects of Exercise Alone or Combined With Cognitive Training and Vitamin D Supplementation to Improve Cognition in Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Randomized Clinical Trial.” JAMA Network Open 6 (7): e2324465. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.24465.
An, Yong Woo, Kyung-Min Kim, Andrea DiTrani Lobacz, Jochen Baumeister, Jill S. Higginson, Jeffrey Rosen, and Charles Buz Swanik. 2023. “Cognitive Training Improves Joint Stiffness Regulation and Function in ACLR Patients Compared to Healthy Controls.” Healthcare 11 (13): 1875. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11131875.
Hoffman, Lisa, Nicholas D. Burt, Nicholas R. Piniella, Madison Baker, Nicole Volino, Saeed Yasin, Min-Kyung Jung, Adena Leder, and Amber Sousa. 2023. “Efficacy and Feasibility of Remote Cognitive Remediation Therapy in Parkinson’s Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” Edited by Giovanni Mirabella. Parkinson’s Disease 2023 (June): 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1155/2023/6645554.
Wallace, Gail, Tyler Bell, Sheila Black, Michael Crowe, Roland J. Thorpe, Caitlin Pope, and George W. Rebok. 2023. “Associations of Subjective Memory with Life Space and Neighborhood Built Environment in Older Adults in the ACTIVE Study.” Journal of Aging and Health, May, 089826432311777. https://doi.org/10.1177/08982643231177760.
Vance, David E., Pariya L. Fazeli, Andres Azuero, Jennifer S. Frank, Virginia G. Wadley, James L. Raper, Caitlin N. Pope, and Karlene K. Ball. 2023. “A 2-Year Longitudinal Randomized Controlled Trial Examining the Transfer of Speed of Processing Training to Secondary Cognitive Domains in Middle-Aged and Older Adults with HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder: Results of the Think Fast Study.” The Clinical Neuropsychologist 0 (0): 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1080/13854046.2023.2212867.
Pressler, Susan J., Miyeon Jung, Bruno Giordani, Marita G. Titler, Irmina Gradus-Pizlo, Kittie Reid Lake, Kelly L. Wierenga, et al. 2023. “Evaluating Depressive Symptoms, BDNF Val66Met, and APOE-Ε4 as Moderators of Response to Computerized Cognitive Training in Heart Failure.” Heart & Lung 59 (May): 146–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrtlng.2023.02.002.
Rute-Pérez, Sandra, Carlos Rodríguez-Domínguez, María Vélez-Coto, Miguel Pérez-García, and Alfonso Caracuel. 2023. “Effectiveness of Computerized Cognitive Training by VIRTRAEL on Memory and Executive Function in Older People: A Pilot Study.” Brain Sciences 13 (4): 684. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13040684.
McMaster, M., S. Kim, L. Clare, S. J. Torres, N. Cherbuin, and K. J. Anstey. 2023. “The Feasibility of a Multidomain Dementia Risk Reduction Randomised Controlled Trial for People Experiencing Cognitive Decline: The Body, Brain, Life for Cognitive Decline (BBL-CD).” Aging & Mental Health 0 (0): 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2023.2190083.
Singh, Jaskirat, Sukhwinder Singh, Bir Singh Chavan, Savita Gupta, Priti Arun, Damanjeet Kaur, Navneet Kaur, and Archna Sharma. 2023. “Efficacy of Cognitive Training Program Given to Patients with Schizophrenia Using Computer Tablets: A Preliminary Study.” International Journal of Cognitive Therapy 16 (1): 40–57. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41811-023-00156-2.
Chuang, I-Ching, I-Chen Chen, Ken-Hsien Su, Yih-Ru Wu, and Ching-Yi Wu. 2023. “The Effects of High versus Low Frequency of Combined Physical and Cognitive Training on Cognitive Function in Older Adults with Cognitive Decline: A Quasi-Experimental Study.” BMC Geriatrics 23 (1): 94. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12877-023-03802-8.
Maeir, Talia, Chen Makranz, Tamar Peretz, Ester Odem, Shani Tsabari, Mor Nahum, and Yafit Gilboa. 2023. “Cognitive Retraining and Functional Treatment (CRAFT) for Adults with Cancer Related Cognitive Impairment: A Preliminary Efficacy Study.” Supportive Care in Cancer 31 (3): 152. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00520-023-07611-y.
Le, Thanh P., Joseph Ventura, Bernalyn Ruiz-Yu, Sarah C. McEwen, Kenneth L. Subotnik, and Keith H. Nuechterlein. 2023. “Treatment Engagement in First-Episode Schizophrenia: Associations between Intrinsic Motivation and Attendance during Cognitive Training and an Aerobic Exercise Program.” Schizophrenia Research 251 (January): 59–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2022.12.018.
Chuang, I-Ching, Hui-Yan Chiau, Wan-Wen Liao, Yih-Ru Wu, Chih-Hung Chang, and Ching-Yi Wu. 2023. “Effects of Computer-Based Cognitive Training Combined with Physical Training for Older Adults with Cognitive Impairment: A Four-Arm Randomized Controlled Trial.” DIGITAL HEALTH 9 (January): 20552076231203630. https://doi.org/10.1177/20552076231203633.
Mororó, Luana G., Anna Luiza Guimarães, Ana Carolina Costa, Larissa Genaro, Maria T. Cavalcanti, Linda Scoriels, and Rogerio Panizzutti. 2023. “Association between Motivation and Engagement with Changes in Cognition and Symptoms after Digital Cognitive Training in Schizophrenia.” Schizophrenia Research 251 (January): 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2022.12.002.
McEwen, S. C., B. Jarrahi, J. Ventura, K. L. Subotnik, J. Nguyen, S. M. Woo, and K. H. Nuechterlein. 2023. “A Combined Exercise and Cognitive Training Intervention Induces Fronto-Cingulate Cortical Plasticity in First-Episode Psychosis Patients.” Schizophrenia Research 251 (January): 12–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2022.12.001.
Lewis, Erin D., Margaret Apostol, Jamie Langston, Alex Parker, and Malkanthi Evans. 2023. “A Multi-Center, Open-Label Exploratory Study to Assess Cognitive Function Response to Lifestyle Changes Plus Supplementation in Healthy Adults with Risk Factors Associated with Cognitive Decline.” Applied Sciences 13 (5): 2818. https://doi.org/10.3390/app13052818.
Merzbach, Viviane, Michael Ferrandino, Marie Gernigon, Jorge Marques Pinto, Adrian Scruton, and Dan Gordon. 2023. “Impact of Prescribed Exercise on the Physical and Cognitive Health of Adults with Down Syndrome: The MinDSets Study.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 20 (23): 7121. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20237121.
Tseng, Angela, Megan DuBois, Bruno Biagianti, Caroline Brumley, and Suma Jacob. 2023. “Auditory Domain Sensitivity and Neuroplasticity-Based Targeted Cognitive Training in Autism Spectrum Disorder.” Journal of Clinical Medicine 12 (4): 1635. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12041635.
Sprague, Briana N., Lesley A. Ross, and Karlene K. Ball. 2023. “Does Cognitive Training Reduce Falls across Ten Years?: Data from the ACTIVE Trial.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 20 (6): 4941. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20064941.
Hausman, Hanna K., Gene E. Alexander, Ronald Cohen, Michael Marsiske, Steven T. DeKosky, Georg A. Hishaw, Andrew O’Shea, et al. 2023. “Primary Outcome from the Augmenting Cognitive Training in Older Adults Study (ACT): A TDCS and Cognitive Training Randomized Clinical Trial.” Brain Stimulation 16 (3): 904–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2023.05.021.