This is a partial list of studies that directly demonstrate that computerized cognitive training can improve cognition. There are many other such studies; this list is a sampling.

Kraft, Jessica N., Aprinda Indahlastari, Emanuel M. Boutzoukas, Hanna K. Hausman, Cheshire Hardcastle, Alejandro Albizu, Andrew O’Shea, et al. 2024. “The Impact of a TDCS and Cognitive Training Intervention on Task-Based Functional Connectivity.” GeroScience, January. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11357-024-01077-4.
Vance, David E., Pariya L. Fazeli, Andres Azuero, Jennifer S. Frank, Virginia G. Wadley, James L. Raper, Caitlin N. Pope, Alexandra Jacob, and Karlene K. Ball. 2024. “A 2-Year, Randomized, Clinical Trial Examining the Effects of Speed of Processing Cognitive Training on Quality-of-Life Indicators in Adults With HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder in Birmingham, Alabama: Results of the Think Fast Study.” Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 10.1097/JNC.0000000000000449. https://doi.org/10.1097/JNC.0000000000000449.
Bruno, Jennifer L., Jacob S. Shaw, and S. M. Hadi Hosseini. 2023. “Toward Personalized Cognitive Training in Older Adults: A Pilot Investigation of the Effects of Baseline Performance and Age on Cognitive Training Outcomes.” Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease: JAD, November. https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-230619.
Fisher, Melissa, Kevin Etter, Aimee Murray, Neelu Ghiasi, Kristin LaCross, Ian Ramsay, Ariel Currie, et al. 2023. “The Effects of Remote Cognitive Training Combined With a Mobile App Intervention on Psychosis: Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial.” Journal of Medical Internet Research 25 (1): e48634. https://doi.org/10.2196/48634.
Ziccardi, Stefano, Tom Fuchs, Michael G Dwyer, Robert Zivadinov, Hanneke E Hulst, Massimiliano Calabrese, and Ralph HB Benedict. 2023. “Cognitive Phenotypes Predict Response to Restorative Cognitive Rehabilitation in Multiple Sclerosis.” Multiple Sclerosis Journal, November, 13524585231208332. https://doi.org/10.1177/13524585231208331.
Rebok, George W., Andrew Gellert, Norma B. Coe, Olivio J. Clay, Gail Wallace, Jeanine M. Parisi, Adrienne T. Aiken-Morgan, et al. 2023. “Effects of Cognitive Training on Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Dementias: The Moderating Role of Social Determinants of Health.” Journal of Aging and Health 35 (9_suppl): 40S-50S. https://doi.org/10.1177/08982643231203755.
Owens, Joshua, Richard Jones, and Michael Marsiske. 2023. “The Effects of Occupational Complexity on Late Life Cognition in ACTIVE: Examining the Mediating and Moderating Effects of Race.” Journal of Aging and Health 35 (9_suppl): 95S-106S. https://doi.org/10.1177/08982643211038837.
Dean, Lorraine T., Shang-En Chung, Alden L. Gross, Olivio J. Clay, Sherry L. Willis, Michael Crowe, Ian M. McDonough, et al. 2023. “Does Consumer Credit Precede or Follow Changes in Cognitive Impairment Among Older Adults? An Investigation in the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) Trial.” Journal of Aging and Health 35 (9_suppl): 84S-94S. https://doi.org/10.1177/08982643221113715.
Rotblatt, Lindsay J., Adrienne T. Aiken-Morgan, Michael Marsiske, Ann L. Horgas, and Kelsey R. Thomas. 2023. “Do Associations Between Vascular Risk and Mild Cognitive Impairment Vary by Race?” Journal of Aging and Health 35 (9_suppl): 74S-83S. https://doi.org/10.1177/0898264320984357.
Aiken-Morgan, Adrienne T., Ian M. McDonough, Jeanine M. Parisi, Olivio J. Clay, Kelsey R. Thomas, Lindsay J. Rotblatt, Roland J. Thorpe, and Michael Marsiske. 2023. “Associations Between Body Mass Index and Cognitive Change in the ACTIVE Study: Variations by Race and Social Determinants of Health.” Journal of Aging and Health 35 (9_suppl): 59S-73S. https://doi.org/10.1177/08982643221109645.
Feger, Danielle M., Sherry L. Willis, Jennifer Deal, Lorraine T. Dean, and Alden L. Gross. 2023. “Disparities in First Instrumental Activity of Daily Living Difficulty between Black and White Older Adults: Findings from the Advanced Cognitive Training in Independent and Vital Elderly Study.” Journal of Aging and Health 35 (9_suppl): 51S-58S. https://doi.org/10.1177/08982643211023005.
Pope, Caitlin N., Katie M. Wheeler, Tyler R. Bell, Brooke E. Carroll, Lesley A. Ross, Michael Crowe, Shelia R. Black, Olivio J. Clay, and Karlene K. Ball. 2023. “Social and Neighborhood Context Moderates the Associations Between Processing Speed and Driving Mobility: A 10-Year Analysis of the ACTIVE Study.” Journal of Aging and Health 35 (9_suppl): 26S-39S. https://doi.org/10.1177/08982643231163907.
Ball, Karlene K., Olivio J. Clay, Jerri D. Edwards, Bernadette A. Fausto, Katie M. Wheeler, Cynthia Felix, and Lesley A. Ross. 2023. “Indicators of Crash Risk in Older Adults: A Longitudinal Analysis From the ACTIVE Study.” Journal of Aging and Health 35 (9_suppl): 19S-25S. https://doi.org/10.1177/08982643211031346.
Clay, Olivio J., Karlene K. Ball, Katie M. Wheeler, Michael Crowe, Michael Marsiske, Lorraine T. Dean, Roland J. Thorpe, et al. 2023. “Evaluating Social Determinants of Health Domains and Their Predictive Validity Within Black/African American and White Older Adults From the ACTIVE Trial.” Journal of Aging and Health 35 (9_suppl): 11S-18S. https://doi.org/10.1177/08982643221111205.
Rebok, George W., Olivio J. Clay, Roland J. Thorpe, and Sherry L. Willis. 2023. “The ACTIVE Study: Association of Race and Social Determinants of Health (SDoH) with Long-Term Outcomes and Cognitive Training Effects.” Journal of Aging and Health 35 (9_suppl): 3S-10S. https://doi.org/10.1177/08982643231204931.
Yeh, Ting-Ting, Ku-Chou Chang, Jiun-Jie Wang, Wei-Che Lin, and Ching-Yi Wu. 2023. “Neuroplastic Changes Associated With Hybrid Exercise-Cognitive Training in Stroke Survivors With Mild Cognitive Decline: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair 37 (9): 662–73. https://doi.org/10.1177/15459683231200220.
Montero-Odasso, Manuel, Guangyong Zou, Mark Speechley, Quincy J. Almeida, Teresa Liu-Ambrose, Laura E. Middleton, Richard Camicioli, et al. 2023. “Effects of Exercise Alone or Combined With Cognitive Training and Vitamin D Supplementation to Improve Cognition in Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Randomized Clinical Trial.” JAMA Network Open 6 (7): e2324465. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.24465.
An, Yong Woo, Kyung-Min Kim, Andrea DiTrani Lobacz, Jochen Baumeister, Jill S. Higginson, Jeffrey Rosen, and Charles Buz Swanik. 2023. “Cognitive Training Improves Joint Stiffness Regulation and Function in ACLR Patients Compared to Healthy Controls.” Healthcare 11 (13): 1875. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11131875.
Hoffman, Lisa, Nicholas D. Burt, Nicholas R. Piniella, Madison Baker, Nicole Volino, Saeed Yasin, Min-Kyung Jung, Adena Leder, and Amber Sousa. 2023. “Efficacy and Feasibility of Remote Cognitive Remediation Therapy in Parkinson’s Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” Edited by Giovanni Mirabella. Parkinson’s Disease 2023 (June): 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1155/2023/6645554.
Wallace, Gail, Tyler Bell, Sheila Black, Michael Crowe, Roland J. Thorpe, Caitlin Pope, and George W. Rebok. 2023. “Associations of Subjective Memory with Life Space and Neighborhood Built Environment in Older Adults in the ACTIVE Study.” Journal of Aging and Health, May, 089826432311777. https://doi.org/10.1177/08982643231177760.
Vance, David E., Pariya L. Fazeli, Andres Azuero, Jennifer S. Frank, Virginia G. Wadley, James L. Raper, Caitlin N. Pope, and Karlene K. Ball. 2023. “A 2-Year Longitudinal Randomized Controlled Trial Examining the Transfer of Speed of Processing Training to Secondary Cognitive Domains in Middle-Aged and Older Adults with HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder: Results of the Think Fast Study.” The Clinical Neuropsychologist 0 (0): 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1080/13854046.2023.2212867.
Pressler, Susan J., Miyeon Jung, Bruno Giordani, Marita G. Titler, Irmina Gradus-Pizlo, Kittie Reid Lake, Kelly L. Wierenga, et al. 2023. “Evaluating Depressive Symptoms, BDNF Val66Met, and APOE-Ε4 as Moderators of Response to Computerized Cognitive Training in Heart Failure.” Heart & Lung 59 (May): 146–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrtlng.2023.02.002.
Rute-Pérez, Sandra, Carlos Rodríguez-Domínguez, María Vélez-Coto, Miguel Pérez-García, and Alfonso Caracuel. 2023. “Effectiveness of Computerized Cognitive Training by VIRTRAEL on Memory and Executive Function in Older People: A Pilot Study.” Brain Sciences 13 (4): 684. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13040684.
McMaster, M., S. Kim, L. Clare, S. J. Torres, N. Cherbuin, and K. J. Anstey. 2023. “The Feasibility of a Multidomain Dementia Risk Reduction Randomised Controlled Trial for People Experiencing Cognitive Decline: The Body, Brain, Life for Cognitive Decline (BBL-CD).” Aging & Mental Health 0 (0): 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2023.2190083.
Singh, Jaskirat, Sukhwinder Singh, Bir Singh Chavan, Savita Gupta, Priti Arun, Damanjeet Kaur, Navneet Kaur, and Archna Sharma. 2023. “Efficacy of Cognitive Training Program Given to Patients with Schizophrenia Using Computer Tablets: A Preliminary Study.” International Journal of Cognitive Therapy 16 (1): 40–57. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41811-023-00156-2.
Chuang, I-Ching, I-Chen Chen, Ken-Hsien Su, Yih-Ru Wu, and Ching-Yi Wu. 2023. “The Effects of High versus Low Frequency of Combined Physical and Cognitive Training on Cognitive Function in Older Adults with Cognitive Decline: A Quasi-Experimental Study.” BMC Geriatrics 23 (1): 94. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12877-023-03802-8.
Maeir, Talia, Chen Makranz, Tamar Peretz, Ester Odem, Shani Tsabari, Mor Nahum, and Yafit Gilboa. 2023. “Cognitive Retraining and Functional Treatment (CRAFT) for Adults with Cancer Related Cognitive Impairment: A Preliminary Efficacy Study.” Supportive Care in Cancer 31 (3): 152. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00520-023-07611-y.
Roach, Jared C., Molly K. Rapozo, Junko Hara, Gwênlyn Glusman, Jennifer Lovejoy, William R. Shankle, and Leroy Hood. 2023. “A Remotely Coached Multimodal Lifestyle Intervention for Alzheimer’s Disease Ameliorates Functional and Cognitive Outcomes.” Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease Preprint (Preprint): 1–17. https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-230403.
Le, Thanh P., Joseph Ventura, Bernalyn Ruiz-Yu, Sarah C. McEwen, Kenneth L. Subotnik, and Keith H. Nuechterlein. 2023. “Treatment Engagement in First-Episode Schizophrenia: Associations between Intrinsic Motivation and Attendance during Cognitive Training and an Aerobic Exercise Program.” Schizophrenia Research 251 (January): 59–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2022.12.018.
Chuang, I-Ching, Hui-Yan Chiau, Wan-Wen Liao, Yih-Ru Wu, Chih-Hung Chang, and Ching-Yi Wu. 2023. “Effects of Computer-Based Cognitive Training Combined with Physical Training for Older Adults with Cognitive Impairment: A Four-Arm Randomized Controlled Trial.” DIGITAL HEALTH 9 (January): 20552076231203630. https://doi.org/10.1177/20552076231203633.
Mororó, Luana G., Anna Luiza Guimarães, Ana Carolina Costa, Larissa Genaro, Maria T. Cavalcanti, Linda Scoriels, and Rogerio Panizzutti. 2023. “Association between Motivation and Engagement with Changes in Cognition and Symptoms after Digital Cognitive Training in Schizophrenia.” Schizophrenia Research 251 (January): 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2022.12.002.
McEwen, S. C., B. Jarrahi, J. Ventura, K. L. Subotnik, J. Nguyen, S. M. Woo, and K. H. Nuechterlein. 2023. “A Combined Exercise and Cognitive Training Intervention Induces Fronto-Cingulate Cortical Plasticity in First-Episode Psychosis Patients.” Schizophrenia Research 251 (January): 12–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2022.12.001.
Lewis, Erin D., Margaret Apostol, Jamie Langston, Alex Parker, and Malkanthi Evans. 2023. “A Multi-Center, Open-Label Exploratory Study to Assess Cognitive Function Response to Lifestyle Changes Plus Supplementation in Healthy Adults with Risk Factors Associated with Cognitive Decline.” Applied Sciences 13 (5): 2818. https://doi.org/10.3390/app13052818.
Merzbach, Viviane, Michael Ferrandino, Marie Gernigon, Jorge Marques Pinto, Adrian Scruton, and Dan Gordon. 2023. “Impact of Prescribed Exercise on the Physical and Cognitive Health of Adults with Down Syndrome: The MinDSets Study.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 20 (23): 7121. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20237121.
Tseng, Angela, Megan DuBois, Bruno Biagianti, Caroline Brumley, and Suma Jacob. 2023. “Auditory Domain Sensitivity and Neuroplasticity-Based Targeted Cognitive Training in Autism Spectrum Disorder.” Journal of Clinical Medicine 12 (4): 1635. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12041635.
Sprague, Briana N., Lesley A. Ross, and Karlene K. Ball. 2023. “Does Cognitive Training Reduce Falls across Ten Years?: Data from the ACTIVE Trial.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 20 (6): 4941. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20064941.
Hausman, Hanna K., Gene E. Alexander, Ronald Cohen, Michael Marsiske, Steven T. DeKosky, Georg A. Hishaw, Andrew O’Shea, et al. 2023. “Primary Outcome from the Augmenting Cognitive Training in Older Adults Study (ACT): A TDCS and Cognitive Training Randomized Clinical Trial.” Brain Stimulation 16 (3): 904–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2023.05.021.
Vance, David E., Pariya L. Fazeli, Andres Azuero, Sarah Khalidi, Jennifer S. Frank, Virginia G. Wadley, James L. Raper, Caitlin N. Pope, Alexandra E. Jacob, and Karlene K. Ball. 2023. “Two-Year Clinical Trial Examining the Effects of Speed of Processing Training on Everyday Functioning in Adults with Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND) and Borderline HAND in the U.S. Deep South: Findings of the Think Fast Study.” Applied Neuropsychology: Adult 0 (0): 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1080/23279095.2023.2209900.
McEvoy, Claire T., Joanne Regan-Moriarty, Catherine Dolan, Caroline Bradshaw, Valerie Mortland, Maire McCallion, Geraldine McCarthy, et al. 2023. “A Qualitative Study to Inform Adaptations to a Brain Health Intervention for Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Living in Rural Regions of Ireland.” Diabetic Medicine 40 (4): e15034. https://doi.org/10.1111/dme.15034.
Von Ah, Diane, Adele Crouch, and Susan Storey. 2023. “Acceptability of Computerized Cognitive Training and Global Cognitive Stimulating-Based Games Delivered Remotely: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial to Address Cancer and Cancer-Related Cognitive Impairment in Breast Cancer Survivors.” Cancer Medicine 00: 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1002/cam4.5904.
Khan, Anzalee, Jean-Pierre Lindenmayer, Beverly Insel, Mary Seddo, Ecem Demirli, Kayla DeFazio, Mark Sullivan, Matthew J. Hoptman, and Anthony O. Ahmed. 2023. “Computerized Cognitive and Social Cognition Training in Schizophrenia for Impulsive Aggression.” Schizophrenia Research, S0920-9964(22)00418-2. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2022.11.004.
Chwa, Won Jong, Cyrus A. Raji, Kat Toups, Ann Hathaway, Deborah Gordon, Henrianna Chung, Alan Boyd, et al. 2023. “Longitudinal White and Gray Matter Response to Precision Medicine-Guided Intervention for Alzheimer’s Disease.” Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease: JAD 96 (3): 1051–58. https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-230481.
Guimarães, Anna Luiza, David Richer Araujo Coelho, Linda Scoriels, Juliana Mambrini, Lis Ribeiro do Valle Antonelli, Priscilla Henriques, Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho, et al. 2022. “Effects of Toxoplasma Gondii Infection on Cognition, Symptoms, and Response to Digital Cognitive Training in Schizophrenia.” Schizophrenia 8 (1): 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41537-022-00292-2.
Kuo, Susan S., Joseph Ventura, Jennifer K. Forsyth, Kenneth L. Subotnik, Luana R. Turner, and Keith H. Nuechterlein. 2022. “Developmental Trajectories of Premorbid Functioning Predict Cognitive Remediation Treatment Response in First-Episode Schizophrenia.” Psychological Medicine, November, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291722003312.
Duraney, Elizabeth Jean, Megan E. Fisher, Heena R. Manglani, Rebecca R. Andridge, Jacqueline A. Nicholas, and Ruchika Shaurya Prakash. 2022. “Impact of Mindfulness Training on Emotion Regulation in Multiple Sclerosis: Secondary Analysis of a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.” Rehabilitation Psychology 67 (4): 449–60. https://doi.org/10.1037/rep0000456.
Thorpe, Roland J., Alison Huang, Emily Smail, Olivio J. Clay, Lorraine Dean, Adrienne Aiken Morgan, Andrew Gellert, and George W. Rebok. 2022. “The Relationship Between Cognition and Mortality Among Older Black and White          Men in Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly.” Journal of Aging and Health, September, 08982643221128906. https://doi.org/10.1177/08982643221128906.
Bugos, Jennifer A, and Yan Wang. 2022. “Piano Training Enhances Executive Functions and Psychosocial Outcomes in Aging: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial.” The Journals of Gerontology: Series B 77 (9): 1625–36. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbac021.
Szymkowicz, Sarah M., Warren D. Taylor, and Adam J. Woods. 2022. “Augmenting Cognitive Training with Bifrontal TDCS Decreases Subclinical Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults: Preliminary Findings.” Brain Stimulation: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation 15 (5): 1037–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2022.07.055.
Anguera, Joaquin A., Joshua J. Volponi, Alexander J. Simon, Courtney L. Gallen, Camarin E. Rolle, Roger Anguera-Singla, Erica A. Pitsch, Christian J. Thompson, and Adam Gazzaley. 2022. “Integrated Cognitive and Physical Fitness Training Enhances Attention Abilities in Older Adults.” Npj Aging 8 (1): 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41514-022-00093-y.
Kraft, Jessica N., Hanna K. Hausman, Cheshire Hardcastle, Alejandro Albizu, Andrew O’Shea, Nicole D. Evangelista, Emanuel M. Boutzoukas, et al. 2022. “Task-Based Functional Connectivity of the Useful Field of View (UFOV) FMRI Task.” GeroScience, August. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11357-022-00632-1.