This is a partial list of studies that directly demonstrate that computerized cognitive training can improve cognition. There are many other such studies; this list is a sampling.

Montero-Odasso, Manuel, Guangyong Zou, Mark Speechley, Quincy J. Almeida, Teresa Liu-Ambrose, Laura E. Middleton, Richard Camicioli, et al. 2023. “Effects of Exercise Alone or Combined With Cognitive Training and Vitamin D Supplementation to Improve Cognition in Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Randomized Clinical Trial.” JAMA Network Open 6 (7): e2324465.
Vance, David E., Pariya L. Fazeli, Andres Azuero, Jennifer S. Frank, Virginia G. Wadley, James L. Raper, Caitlin N. Pope, and Karlene K. Ball. 2023. “A 2-Year Longitudinal Randomized Controlled Trial Examining the Transfer of Speed of Processing Training to Secondary Cognitive Domains in Middle-Aged and Older Adults with HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder: Results of the Think Fast Study.” The Clinical Neuropsychologist 0 (0): 1–22.
Rute-Pérez, Sandra, Carlos Rodríguez-Domínguez, María Vélez-Coto, Miguel Pérez-García, and Alfonso Caracuel. 2023. “Effectiveness of Computerized Cognitive Training by VIRTRAEL on Memory and Executive Function in Older People: A Pilot Study.” Brain Sciences 13 (4): 684.
McMaster, M., S. Kim, L. Clare, S. J. Torres, N. Cherbuin, and K. J. Anstey. 2023. “The Feasibility of a Multidomain Dementia Risk Reduction Randomised Controlled Trial for People Experiencing Cognitive Decline: The Body, Brain, Life for Cognitive Decline (BBL-CD).” Aging & Mental Health 0 (0): 1–9.
Chuang, I-Ching, I-Chen Chen, Ken-Hsien Su, Yih-Ru Wu, and Ching-Yi Wu. 2023. “The Effects of High versus Low Frequency of Combined Physical and Cognitive Training on Cognitive Function in Older Adults with Cognitive Decline: A Quasi-Experimental Study.” BMC Geriatrics 23 (1): 94.
Maeir, Talia, Chen Makranz, Tamar Peretz, Ester Odem, Shani Tsabari, Mor Nahum, and Yafit Gilboa. 2023. “Cognitive Retraining and Functional Treatment (CRAFT) for Adults with Cancer Related Cognitive Impairment: A Preliminary Efficacy Study.” Supportive Care in Cancer 31 (3): 152.
Mororó, Luana G., Anna Luiza Guimarães, Ana Carolina Costa, Larissa Genaro, Maria T. Cavalcanti, Linda Scoriels, and Rogerio Panizzutti. 2023. “Association between Motivation and Engagement with Changes in Cognition and Symptoms after Digital Cognitive Training in Schizophrenia.” Schizophrenia Research 251 (January): 1–9.
McEwen, S. C., B. Jarrahi, J. Ventura, K. L. Subotnik, J. Nguyen, S. M. Woo, and K. H. Nuechterlein. 2023. “A Combined Exercise and Cognitive Training Intervention Induces Fronto-Cingulate Cortical Plasticity in First-Episode Psychosis Patients.” Schizophrenia Research 251 (January): 12–21.
Tseng, Angela, Megan DuBois, Bruno Biagianti, Caroline Brumley, and Suma Jacob. 2023. “Auditory Domain Sensitivity and Neuroplasticity-Based Targeted Cognitive Training in Autism Spectrum Disorder.” Journal of Clinical Medicine 12 (4): 1635.
Sprague, Briana N., Lesley A. Ross, and Karlene K. Ball. 2023. “Does Cognitive Training Reduce Falls across Ten Years?: Data from the ACTIVE Trial.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 20 (6): 4941.
Guimarães, Anna Luiza, David Richer Araujo Coelho, Linda Scoriels, Juliana Mambrini, Lis Ribeiro do Valle Antonelli, Priscilla Henriques, Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho, et al. 2022. “Effects of Toxoplasma Gondii Infection on Cognition, Symptoms, and Response to Digital Cognitive Training in Schizophrenia.” Schizophrenia 8 (1): 1–8.
Khan, Anzalee, Jean-Pierre Lindenmayer, Beverly Insel, Mary Seddo, Ecem Demirli, Kayla DeFazio, Mark Sullivan, Matthew J. Hoptman, and Anthony O. Ahmed. 2022. “Computerized Cognitive and Social Cognition Training in Schizophrenia for Impulsive Aggression.” Schizophrenia Research, November, S0920-9964(22)00418-2.
Kuo, Susan S., Joseph Ventura, Jennifer K. Forsyth, Kenneth L. Subotnik, Luana R. Turner, and Keith H. Nuechterlein. 2022. “Developmental Trajectories of Premorbid Functioning Predict Cognitive Remediation Treatment Response in First-Episode Schizophrenia.” Psychological Medicine, November, 1–10.
Duraney, Elizabeth Jean, Megan E. Fisher, Heena R. Manglani, Rebecca R. Andridge, Jacqueline A. Nicholas, and Ruchika Shaurya Prakash. 2022. “Impact of Mindfulness Training on Emotion Regulation in Multiple Sclerosis: Secondary Analysis of a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.” Rehabilitation Psychology 67 (4): 449–60.
Bugos, Jennifer A, and Yan Wang. 2022. “Piano Training Enhances Executive Functions and Psychosocial Outcomes in Aging: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial.” The Journals of Gerontology: Series B 77 (9): 1625–36.
Szymkowicz, Sarah M., Warren D. Taylor, and Adam J. Woods. 2022. “Augmenting Cognitive Training with Bifrontal TDCS Decreases Subclinical Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults: Preliminary Findings.” Brain Stimulation: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation 15 (5): 1037–39.
Anguera, Joaquin A., Joshua J. Volponi, Alexander J. Simon, Courtney L. Gallen, Camarin E. Rolle, Roger Anguera-Singla, Erica A. Pitsch, Christian J. Thompson, and Adam Gazzaley. 2022. “Integrated Cognitive and Physical Fitness Training Enhances Attention Abilities in Older Adults.” Npj Aging 8 (1): 1–13.
Kraft, Jessica N., Hanna K. Hausman, Cheshire Hardcastle, Alejandro Albizu, Andrew O’Shea, Nicole D. Evangelista, Emanuel M. Boutzoukas, et al. 2022. “Task-Based Functional Connectivity of the Useful Field of View (UFOV) FMRI Task.” GeroScience, August.
Nuechterlein, Keith H., Sarah C. McEwen, Joseph Ventura, Kenneth L. Subotnik, Luana R. Turner, Michael Boucher, Laurie R. Casaus, Margaret G. Distler, and Jacqueline N. Hayata. 2022. “Aerobic Exercise Enhances Cognitive Training Effects in First Episode Schizophrenia: Randomized Clinical Trial Demonstrates Cognitive and Functional Gains.” Psychological Medicine, August, 1–28.
Fiszdon, Joanna M., Jimmy Choi, Kaicheng Wang, Lori T. Parente, Sean Hallinan, Emma Burton, Morris D. Bell, and Steve Martino. 2022. “Motivational Interviewing to Enhance Psychosocial Treatment Attendance in People with SMI.” Schizophrenia Research 246 (August): 165–71.
Chiaravalloti, Nancy D., Silvana L. Costa, Nancy B. Moore, Kristen Costanza, and John DeLuca. 2022. “The Efficacy of Speed of Processing Training for Improving Processing Speed in Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis: A Randomized Clinical Trial.” Journal of Neurology 269 (7): 3614–24.
Clayson, Peter E., Yash B. Joshi, Michael L. Thomas, Joyce Sprock, John Nungaray, Neal R. Swerdlow, and Gregory A. Light. 2022. “Click-Evoked Auditory Brainstem Responses (ABRs) Are Intact in Schizophrenia and Not Sensitive to Cognitive Training.” Biomarkers in Neuropsychiatry 6 (June): 100046.
Harvey, Philip D., Matthew Zayas-Bazan, Lize Tibiriçá, Peter Kallestrup, and Sara J. Czaja. 2022. “Improvements in Cognitive Performance With Computerized Training in Older People With and Without Cognitive Impairment: Synergistic Effects of Skills-Focused and Cognitive-Focused Strategies.” The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 30 (6): 717–26.
Caulfield, Kevin A., Aprinda Indahlastari, Nicole R. Nissim, James W. Lopez, Holly H. Fleischmann, Adam J. Woods, and Mark S. George. 2022. “Electric Field Strength From Prefrontal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Determines Degree of Working Memory Response: A Potential Application of Reverse-Calculation Modeling?” Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface 25 (4): 578–87.
Von Ah, Diane, Brenna C. McDonald, Adele D. Crouch, Susan Ofner, Susan Perkins, Susan Storey, Robert Considine, and Fred Unverzagt. 2022. “Randomized Double-Masked Controlled Trial of Cognitive Training in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Preliminary Study.” Supportive Care in Cancer, June.
Steinberg, Nessa, Jeanine M. Parisi, Danielle M. Feger, Olivio J. Clay, Sherry L. Willis, Karlene K. Ball, Michael Marsiske, Erin R. Harrell, Shannon M. Sisco, and George W. Rebok. 2022. “Rural-Urban Differences in Cognition: Findings From the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly Trial.” Journal of Aging and Health, May, 08982643221102718.
Wanqin, Mary, and Li Ma. 2022. “Effect of BrainHQ visual rehabilitation training on memory function of patients with cerebral infarction.” International Medical and Health Herald 28 (10): 1458–62.
Vicent-Gil, Muriel, Sara González-Simarro, Beatriz Raventós, Javier Vera, Eduardo D. Marín Martínez, Carlota Sabaté-Cao, Josefina Pérez-Blanco, et al. 2022. “Randomized Clinical Trial of Integral Cognitive Remediation Program for Major Depression (INCREM).” Journal of Affective Disorders 310 (May): 189–97.
Rebok, George W., Alison Huang, Emily Smail, Rostislav Brichko, Jeanine M. Parisi, Michael Marsiske, David L. Roth, et al. 2022. “Long-Term Effects of Cognitive Training on All-Cause Mortality in Us Older Adults.” Journal of Aging and Health, May, 8982643221097681.
Yeh, Ting-Ting, Ku-Chou Chang, Ching-Yi Wu, Chao-Jung Chen, and I.-Ching Chuang. 2022. “Clinical Efficacy of Aerobic Exercise Combined with Computer-Based Cognitive Training in Stroke: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial.” Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation 29 (4): 255–64.
Eaton, Andrew D., Shelley L. Craig, Sean B. Rourke, Teresa Sota, John W. McCullagh, Barbara A. Fallon, and Sharon L. Walmsley. 2022. “Cognitive Remediation Group Therapy Compared to Mutual Aid Group Therapy for People Aging with HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder: Randomized, Controlled Trial.” Social Work with Groups 45 (2): 116–31.
Chen, Quanjing, Adam Turnbull, Martin Cole, Zhengwu Zhang, and Feng V. Lin. 2022. “Enhancing Cortical Network-Level Participation Coefficient as a Potential Mechanism for Transfer in Cognitive Training in AMCI.” NeuroImage, March, 119124.
Boutzoukas, Emanuel M., Andrew O’Shea, Jessica N. Kraft, Cheshire Hardcastle, Nicole D. Evangelista, Hanna K. Hausman, Alejandro Albizu, et al. 2022. “Higher White Matter Hyperintensity Load Adversely Affects Pre-Post Proximal Cognitive Training Performance in Healthy Older Adults.” GeroScience, March.
Hardcastle, Cheshire, Hanna K. Hausman, Jessica N. Kraft, Alejandro Albizu, Andrew O’Shea, Emanuel M. Boutzoukas, Nicole D. Evangelista, et al. 2022. “Proximal Improvement and Higher-Order Resting State Network Change after Multidomain Cognitive Training Intervention in Healthy Older Adults.” GeroScience, March.
Waid-Ebbs, Julia, Pey-Shan Wen, and William Perlstein. 2022. “Enhancing Goal Management Training with Attention Drill Training.” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 103 (3): e43.
Gray, Nicholas, Jong-Sung Yoon, Neil Charness, Walter R. Boot, Nelson A. Roque, Ronald Andringa, Erin R. Harrell, Katharine G. Lewis, and Thomas Vitale. 2022. “Relative Effectiveness of General versus Specific Cognitive Training for Aging Adults.” Psychology and Aging 37 (2): 210–21.
Scoriels, Linda, Larissa T. Genaro, Stella Keffer, Anna Luiza Guimarães, Bárbara Barros-Dumas, Luana G. Mororó, Thales Biagioni, et al. 2022. “Changes in Emotion Processing and Social Cognition with Auditory versus Visual Neuroscience-Informed Cognitive Training in Individuals with Schizophrenia.” Schizophrenia Research 241 (March): 267–74.
Vance, David E., Caitlin N. Pope, Pariya L. Fazeli, Andres Azuero, Jennifer S. Frank, Virginia G. Wadley, James L. Raper, Jun Y. Byun, and Karlene K. Ball. 2022. “A Randomized Clinical Trial on the Impact of Individually Targeted Computerized Cognitive Training on Quality of Life Indicators in Adults with Hiv-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder in the Southeastern United States.” Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, January.
Ben-Avraham, Rina, Anat Afek, Noa Berezin Cohen, Alex Davidov, Tom Van Vleet, Josh Jordan, Ariel Ben Yehudah, Yafit Gilboa, and Mor Nahum. 2022. “Feasibility and Preliminary Effectiveness of Mobile Cognitive Control Training during Basic Combat Training in the Military.” Military Psychology 34 (1): 55–67.
Toups, Kat, Ann Hathaway, Deborah Gordon, Henrianna Chung, Cyrus Raji, Alan Boyd, Benjamin D. Hill, et al. 2022. “Precision Medicine Approach to Alzheimer’s Disease: Successful Pilot Project.” Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease 88 (January): 1411–21.
Lindsey, Hannah M., Mariana Lazar, Giulia Mercuri, Joseph F. Rath, Tamara Bushnik, Steven Flanagan, and Gerald T. Voelbel. 2022. “The Effects of Plasticity-Based Cognitive Rehabilitation on Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury: A Pilot Study.” NeuroRehabilitation Preprint (Preprint): 1–18.
Levy, Shellie-Anne, Glenn Smith, Liselotte De Wit, Brittany DeFeis, Gelan Ying, Priscilla Amofa, Dona Locke, et al. 2022. “Behavioral Interventions in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI): Lessons from a Multicomponent Program.” Neurotherapeutics 19 (1): 117–31.
Pressler, Susan J., Miyeon Jung, Irmina Gradus-Pizlo, Marita Titler, Dean Smith, Sujuan Gao, Kittie Reid Lake, et al. 2022. “Randomized Controlled Trial of a Cognitive Intervention to Improve Memory in Heart Failure.” Journal of Cardiac Failure, S1071-9164(21)00434-6.
Clark, Alexandra L., Alexandra J. Weigand, Olivio J. Clay, Joshua Owens, Jacob Fiala, Michael Crowe, Michael Marsiske, and Kelsey R. Thomas. 2022. “Associations between Social Determinants of Health and 10-Year Change in Everyday Functioning within Black/African American and White Older Adults Enrolled in ACTIVE.” Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring 14 (1): e12385.
Nicastri, Casey M., Brittany M. McFeeley, Sharon S. Simon, Aurélie Ledreux, Krister Håkansson, Ann-Charlotte Granholm, Abdul H. Mohammed, and Kirk R. Daffner. 2022. “BDNF Mediates Improvement in Cognitive Performance after Computerized Cognitive Training in Healthy Older Adults.” Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions 8 (1): e12337.
Meltzer, Jed A., Mira Kates Rose, Anna Y. Le, Kiah A. Spencer, Leora Goldstein, Alina Gubanova, Abbie C. Lai, Maryam Yossofzai, Sabrina E.M. Armstrong, and Ellen Bialystok. 2021. “Improvement in Executive Function for Older Adults through Smartphone Apps: A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Language Learning and Brain Training.” Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition 0 (0): 1–22.
Molina, Juan L., Yash B. Joshi, John A. Nungaray, Michael L. Thomas, Joyce Sprock, Peter E. Clayson, Victoria A. Sanchez, et al. 2021. “Central Auditory Processing Deficits in Schizophrenia: Effects of Auditory-Based Cognitive Training.” Schizophrenia Research 236 (October): 135–41.
Liou, Harris, Cynthia M. Stonnington, Amit A. Shah, Skye A. Buckner-Petty, and Dona E. C. Locke. 2021. “Compensatory and Lifestyle-Based Brain Health Program for Subjective Cognitive Decline: Self-Implementation versus Coaching.” Brain Sciences 11 (10): 1306.
Richer, Stuart, Steven Novil, Taylor Gullett, Avni Dervishi, Sherwin Nassiri, Co Duong, Robert Davis, and Pinakin Gunvant Davey. 2021. “Night Vision and Carotenoids (NVC): A Randomized Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial on Effects of Carotenoid Supplementation on Night Vision in Older Adults.” Nutrients 13 (9): 3191.
Loewy, Rachel, Melissa Fisher, Sisi Ma, Cameron Carter, J Daniel Ragland, Tara A Niendam, Barbara Stuart, et al. 2021. “Durable Cognitive Gains and Symptom Improvement Are Observed in Individuals With Recent-Onset Schizophrenia 6 Months After a Randomized Trial of Auditory Training Completed Remotely.” Schizophrenia Bulletin, no. sbab102 (September).