This is a partial list of studies that directly demonstrate that computerized cognitive training can improve cognition. There are many other such studies; this list is a sampling.

Clayson, Peter E., Yash B. Joshi, Michael L. Thomas, Joyce Sprock, John Nungaray, Neal R. Swerdlow, and Gregory A. Light. 2022. “Click-Evoked Auditory Brainstem Responses (ABRs) Are Intact in Schizophrenia and Not Sensitive to Cognitive Training.” Biomarkers in Neuropsychiatry 6 (June): 100046. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bionps.2022.100046.
Caulfield, Kevin A., Aprinda Indahlastari, Nicole R. Nissim, James W. Lopez, Holly H. Fleischmann, Adam J. Woods, and Mark S. George. 2022. “Electric Field Strength From Prefrontal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Determines Degree of Working Memory Response: A Potential Application of Reverse-Calculation Modeling?” Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface 25 (4): 578–87. https://doi.org/10.1111/ner.13342.
Von Ah, Diane, Brenna C. McDonald, Adele D. Crouch, Susan Ofner, Susan Perkins, Susan Storey, Robert Considine, and Fred Unverzagt. 2022. “Randomized Double-Masked Controlled Trial of Cognitive Training in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Preliminary Study.” Supportive Care in Cancer, June. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00520-022-07182-4.
Steinberg, Nessa, Jeanine M. Parisi, Danielle M. Feger, Olivio J. Clay, Sherry L. Willis, Karlene K. Ball, Michael Marsiske, Erin R. Harrell, Shannon M. Sisco, and George W. Rebok. 2022. “Rural-Urban Differences in Cognition: Findings From the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly Trial.” Journal of Aging and Health, May, 08982643221102718. https://doi.org/10.1177/08982643221102718.
Vicent-Gil, Muriel, Sara González-Simarro, Beatriz Raventós, Javier Vera, Eduardo D. Marín Martínez, Carlota Sabaté-Cao, Josefina Pérez-Blanco, et al. 2022. “Randomized Clinical Trial of Integral Cognitive Remediation Program for Major Depression (INCREM).” Journal of Affective Disorders 310 (May): 189–97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2022.05.016.
Rebok, George W., Alison Huang, Emily Smail, Rostislav Brichko, Jeanine M. Parisi, Michael Marsiske, David L. Roth, et al. 2022. “Long-Term Effects of Cognitive Training on All-Cause Mortality in US Older Adults.” Journal of Aging and Health, May, 8982643221097681. https://doi.org/10.1177/08982643221097681.
Eaton, Andrew D., Shelley L. Craig, Sean B. Rourke, Teresa Sota, John W. McCullagh, Barbara A. Fallon, and Sharon L. Walmsley. 2022. “Cognitive Remediation Group Therapy Compared to Mutual Aid Group Therapy for People Aging with HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder: Randomized, Controlled Trial.” Social Work with Groups 45 (2): 116–31. https://doi.org/10.1080/01609513.2021.1963389.
Chen, Quanjing, Adam Turnbull, Martin Cole, Zhengwu Zhang, and Feng V. Lin. 2022. “Enhancing Cortical Network-Level Participation Coefficient as a Potential Mechanism for Transfer in Cognitive Training in AMCI.” NeuroImage, March, 119124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2022.119124.
Boutzoukas, Emanuel M., Andrew O’Shea, Jessica N. Kraft, Cheshire Hardcastle, Nicole D. Evangelista, Hanna K. Hausman, Alejandro Albizu, et al. 2022. “Higher White Matter Hyperintensity Load Adversely Affects Pre-Post Proximal Cognitive Training Performance in Healthy Older Adults.” GeroScience, March. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11357-022-00538-y.
Hardcastle, Cheshire, Hanna K. Hausman, Jessica N. Kraft, Alejandro Albizu, Andrew O’Shea, Emanuel M. Boutzoukas, Nicole D. Evangelista, et al. 2022. “Proximal Improvement and Higher-Order Resting State Network Change after Multidomain Cognitive Training Intervention in Healthy Older Adults.” GeroScience, March. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11357-022-00535-1.
Waid-Ebbs, Julia, Pey-Shan Wen, and William Perlstein. 2022. “Enhancing Goal Management Training with Attention Drill Training.” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 103 (3): e43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2022.01.119.
Vance, David E., Caitlin N. Pope, Pariya L. Fazeli, Andres Azuero, Jennifer S. Frank, Virginia G. Wadley, James L. Raper, Jun Y. Byun, and Karlene K. Ball. 2022. “A Randomized Clinical Trial on the Impact of Individually Targeted Computerized Cognitive Training on Quality of Life Indicators in Adults with Hiv-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder in the Southeastern United States.” Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, January. https://doi.org/10.1097/JNC.0000000000000316.
Ben-Avraham, Rina, Anat Afek, Noa Berezin Cohen, Alex Davidov, Tom Van Vleet, Josh Jordan, Ariel Ben Yehudah, Yafit Gilboa, and Mor Nahum. 2022. “Feasibility and Preliminary Effectiveness of Mobile Cognitive Control Training during Basic Combat Training in the Military.” Military Psychology 34 (1): 55–67. https://doi.org/10.1080/08995605.2021.1969162.
Lindsey, Hannah M., Mariana Lazar, Giulia Mercuri, Joseph F. Rath, Tamara Bushnik, Steven Flanagan, and Gerald T. Voelbel. 2022. “The Effects of Plasticity-Based Cognitive Rehabilitation on Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury: A Pilot Study.” NeuroRehabilitation Preprint (Preprint): 1–18. https://doi.org/10.3233/NRE-210264.
Levy, Shellie-Anne, Glenn Smith, Liselotte De Wit, Brittany DeFeis, Gelan Ying, Priscilla Amofa, Dona Locke, et al. 2022. “Behavioral Interventions in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI): Lessons from a Multicomponent Program.” Neurotherapeutics 19 (1): 117–31. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13311-022-01225-8.
Pressler, Susan J., Miyeon Jung, Irmina Gradus-Pizlo, Marita Titler, Dean Smith, Sujuan Gao, Kittie Reid Lake, et al. 2021. “Randomized Controlled Trial of a Cognitive Intervention to Improve Memory in Heart Failure.” Journal of Cardiac Failure, November, S1071-9164(21)00434-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cardfail.2021.10.008.
Meltzer, Jed A., Mira Kates Rose, Anna Y. Le, Kiah A. Spencer, Leora Goldstein, Alina Gubanova, Abbie C. Lai, Maryam Yossofzai, Sabrina E.M. Armstrong, and Ellen Bialystok. 2021. “Improvement in Executive Function for Older Adults through Smartphone Apps: A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Language Learning and Brain Training.” Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition 0 (0): 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1080/13825585.2021.1991262.
Molina, Juan L., Yash B. Joshi, John A. Nungaray, Michael L. Thomas, Joyce Sprock, Peter E. Clayson, Victoria A. Sanchez, et al. 2021. “Central Auditory Processing Deficits in Schizophrenia: Effects of Auditory-Based Cognitive Training.” Schizophrenia Research 236 (October): 135–41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2021.07.033.
Liou, Harris, Cynthia M. Stonnington, Amit A. Shah, Skye A. Buckner-Petty, and Dona E. C. Locke. 2021. “Compensatory and Lifestyle-Based Brain Health Program for Subjective Cognitive Decline: Self-Implementation versus Coaching.” Brain Sciences 11 (10): 1306. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11101306.
Loewy, Rachel, Melissa Fisher, Sisi Ma, Cameron Carter, J Daniel Ragland, Tara A Niendam, Barbara Stuart, et al. 2021. “Durable Cognitive Gains and Symptom Improvement Are Observed in Individuals With Recent-Onset Schizophrenia 6 Months After a Randomized Trial of Auditory Training Completed Remotely.” Schizophrenia Bulletin, no. sbab102 (September). https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbab102.
Verghese, Joe, Jeannette R Mahoney, Emmeline Ayers, Anne Ambrose, Cuiling Wang, and Roee Holtzer. 2021. “Computerised Cognitive Remediation to Enhance Mobility in Older Adults: A Single-Blind, Single-Centre, Randomised Trial.” The Lancet Healthy Longevity 2 (9): e571–79. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2666-7568(21)00173-2.
Shandera-Ochsner, Anne L., Melanie J. Chandler, Dona E. Locke, Colleen T. Ball, Julia E. Crook, Vaishali S. Phatak, and Glenn E. Smith. 2021. “Comparative Effects of Physical Exercise and Other Behavioral Interventions on Functional Status Outcomes in Mild Cognitive Impairment.” Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society : JINS 27 (8): 805–12. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1355617721000485.
Kambeitz-Ilankovic, Lana, Sophia Vinogradov, Julian Wenzel, Melissa Fisher, Shalaila S. Haas, Linda Betz, Nora Penzel, Srikantan Nagarajan, Nikolaos Koutsouleris, and Karuna Subramaniam. 2021. “Multivariate Pattern Analysis of Brain Structure Predicts Functional Outcome after Auditory-Based Cognitive Training Interventions.” Npj Schizophrenia 7 (1): 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41537-021-00165-0.
Voelbel, Gerald T., Hannah M. Lindsey, Giulia Mercuri, Tamara Bushnik, and Joseph Rath. 2021. “The Effects of Neuroplasticity-Based Auditory Information Processing Remediation in Adults with Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury.” NeuroRehabilitation, August. https://doi.org/10.3233/NRE-218025.
Phatak, Vaishali S., Glenn E. Smith, Dona Locke, Anne Shandera-Ochsner, Pamela M. Dean, Colleen Ball, Gianna Gutierrez, and Melanie J. Chandler. 2021. “Computerized Cognitive Training (CCT) versus Yoga Impact on 12 Month Post Intervention Cognitive Outcome in Individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment.” Brain Sciences 11 (8): 988. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11080988.
Mahncke, Henry W, Joseph DeGutis, Harvey Levin, Mary R Newsome, Morris D Bell, Chad Grills, Louis M French, et al. 2021. “A Randomized Clinical Trial of Plasticity-Based Cognitive Training in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.” Brain, no. awab202 (July). https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awab202.
Hudak, Elizabeth M., Karen L. Bell, Cidnee Hall, Lori D. Grismore, Jake LaVere, and Jerri D. Edwards. 2021. “Dynamic Useful Field of View Training to Enhance Older Adults’ Cognitive and Motor Function: A Pilot Study.” Journal of Cognitive Enhancement, July. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41465-021-00219-2.
Anguera, Joaquin A., Jessica N. Schachtner, Alexander J. Simon, Joshua Volponi, Samirah Javed, Courtney L. Gallen, and Adam Gazzaley. 2021. “Long-Term Maintenance of Multitasking Abilities Following Video Game Training in Older Adults.” Neurobiology of Aging 103 (July): 22–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2021.02.023.
Duff, Kevin, Jian Ying, Kayla R. Suhrie, Bonnie C.A. Dalley, Taylor J. Atkinson, Sariah M. Porter, Ava M. Dixon, Dustin B. Hammers, and Fredric D. Wolinsky. 2021. “Computerized Cognitive Training in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Randomized Clinical Trial.” Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, March, 08919887211006472. https://doi.org/10.1177/08919887211006472.
Vance, David E., Pariya L. Fazeli, Andres Azuero, Virginia G. Wadley, James L. Raper, and Karlene K. Ball. 2021. “Can Individualized-Targeted Computerized Cognitive Training Benefit Adults with HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder? The Training On Purpose Study (TOPS).” AIDS and Behavior, March. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-021-03230-y.
Xing, Maggie, Dorina Kallogjeri, and Jay F. Piccirillo. 2021. “Investigating the Impact of Cognitive Training for Individuals with Bothersome Tinnitus: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, March, 0194599821994742. https://doi.org/10.1177/0194599821994742.
Routledge, Kylie M., Leanne M. Williams, Anthony W. F. Harris, Peter R. Schofield, and Justine M. Gatt. 2021. “The Impact of Online Brain Training Exercises on Experiences of Depression, Anxiety and Emotional Wellbeing in a Twin Sample.” Journal of Psychiatric Research 134 (February): 138–49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2020.12.054.
Chandler, Melanie, Michelle Graff Radford, Pauline Lucas, Dona Locke, Julia Crook, Colleen Ball, Maria Caselli, Angela Lunde, Vaishali Phatak, and Glenn E. Smith. 2021. “Yoga Training Impacts Physical Function 12 Months Post Intervention for Care Partners of Those with Mild Cognitive Impairment.” OBM Geriatrics 5 (1): 1–1. https://doi.org/10.21926/obm.geriatr.2101147.
Nahum, Mor, Hyunkyu Lee, Melissa Fisher, Michael F. Green, Christine I. Hooker, Joseph Ventura, Joshua T. Jordan, et al. 2021. “Online Social Cognition Training in Schizophrenia: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Multi-Site Clinical Trial.” Schizophrenia Bulletin. https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbaa085.
Molina, Juan L., Michael L. Thomas, Yash B. Joshi, William C. Hochberger, Daisuke Koshiyama, John A. Nungaray, Lauren Cardoso, et al. 2020. “Gamma Oscillations Predict Pro-Cognitive and Clinical Response to Auditory-Based Cognitive Training in Schizophrenia.” Translational Psychiatry 10 (1): 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41398-020-01089-6.
Humeidan, Michelle L., Joshua-Paolo C. Reyes, Ana Mavarez-Martinez, Cory Roeth, Christopher M. Nguyen, Elizabeth Sheridan, Alix Zuleta-Alarcon, Andrew Otey, Mahmoud Abdel-Rasoul, and Sergio D. Bergese. 2020. “Effect of Cognitive Prehabilitation on the Incidence of Postoperative Delirium Among Older Adults Undergoing Major Noncardiac Surgery: The Neurobics Randomized Clinical Trial.” JAMA Surgery, November. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamasurg.2020.4371.
Czaja, Sara J., Peter Kallestrup, and Philip D. Harvey. 2020. “Evaluation of a Novel Technology-Based Program Designed to Assess and Train Everyday Skills in Older Adults.” Innovation in Aging 4 (6). https://doi.org/10.1093/geroni/igaa052.
Gary, Rebecca A., Sudeshna Paul, Elizabeth Corwin, Brittany Butts, Andrew H. Miller, Kenneth Hepburn, and Drenna Waldrop. 2020. “Exercise and Cognitive Training Intervention Improves Self-Care, Quality of Life and Functional Capacity in Persons with Heart Failure.” Journal of Applied Gerontology, October, 0733464820964338. https://doi.org/10.1177/0733464820964338.
Hagen, Bjørn Ingulfsvann, Bjørn Lau, Jutta Joormann, Milada Cvancarova Småstuen, Nils Inge Landrø, and Jan Stubberud. 2020. “Goal Management Training as a Cognitive Remediation Intervention in Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” Journal of Affective Disorders 275 (October): 268–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.07.015.
McMaster, Mitchell, Sarang Kim, Linda Clare, Susan J. Torres, Nicolas Cherbuin, Catherine DʼEste, and Kaarin J. Anstey. 2020. “Lifestyle Risk Factors and Cognitive Outcomes from the Multidomain Dementia Risk Reduction Randomized Controlled Trial, Body Brain Life for Cognitive Decline (BBL-CD).” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, September. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.16762.
Mewton, Louise, Antoinette Hodge, Nicola Gates, Rachel Visontay, Briana Lees, and Maree Teesson. 2020. “A Randomised Double-Blind Trial of Cognitive Training for the Prevention of Psychopathology in at-Risk Youth.” Behaviour Research and Therapy 132 (September): 103672. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103672.
Morimoto, Sarah Shizuko, Roger Alan Altizer, Faith M. Gunning, Willie Hu, Jiacheng Liu, Sarah E. Cote, Juliana Nitis, and George S. Alexopoulos. 2020. “Targeting Cognitive Control Deficits with Neuroplasticity-Based Computerized Cognitive Remediation in Patients with Geriatric Major Depression: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial.” The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 28 (9): 971–80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jagp.2020.05.023.
Van Vleet, Thomas, Paolo Bonato, Eric Fabara, Sawsan Dabit, Sarah-Jane Kim, Christopher Chiu, Antonio Luigi Bisogno, Michael Merzenich, Maurizio Corbetta, and Joseph DeGutis. 2020. “Alertness Training Improves Spatial Bias and Functional Ability in Spatial Neglect.” Annals of Neurology, August. https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.25862.
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class="csl-entry">Wolinsky, Fredric D., Michael P. Jones, and Megan M. Dotson. 2020. ȁc;Does Visual Speed of Processing Training Improve Health-Related Quality of Life in Assisted and Independent Living communities?: A Randomized controlled Trial.” Innovation in Aging 4 (4). https://doi.org/10.1093/geroni/igaa029.
Edwards, Jerri D., Christine B. Phillips, Melissa L. O’Connor, Jennifer L. O’Brien, Elizabeth M. Hudak, and Jody S. Nicholson. 2020. “Applying the Health Belief Model to Quantify and Investigate Expectations for Computerized Cognitive Training.” Journal of Cognitive Enhancement, August. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41465-020-00183-3.
Boroda, Elias, Alyssa M. Krueger, Priya Bansal, Mariah J. Schumacher, Abhrajeet V. Roy, Christopher J. Boys, Kelvin O. Lim, and Jeffrey R. Wozniak. 2020. “A Randomized Controlled Trial of Transcranial Direct-Current Stimulation and Cognitive Training in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder.” Brain Stimulation 13 (4): 1059–68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.04.015.
Manglani, Heena R., Shaadee Samimy, Brittney Schirda, Jacqueline A. Nicholas, and Ruchika Shaurya Prakash. 2020. “Effects of 4-Week Mindfulness Training versus Adaptive Cognitive Training on Processing Speed and Working Memory in Multiple Sclerosis.” Neuropsychology 34 (5): 591–604. https://doi.org/10.1037/neu0000633.
Vilou, Irini, and Christos Bakirtzis. 2020. “Computerized cognitive rehabilitation for treatment of cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis: an explorative study.” Journal of Integrative Neuroscience 19 (2): 341–47. https://doi.org/10.31083/j.jin.2020.02.35.
Yhnell, Emma, Hannah Furby, Rachel S. Lowe, Lucy C. Brookes-Howell, Cheney J. G. Drew, Rebecca Playle, Gareth Watson, Claudia Metzler-Baddeley, Anne E. Rosser, and Monica E. Busse. 2020. “A Randomised Feasibility Study of Computerised Cognitive Training as a Therapeutic Intervention for People with Huntington’s Disease (CogTrainHD).” Pilot and Feasibility Studies 6 (1): 88. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40814-020-00623-z.
Lee, Hyun Kyu, James D. Kent, Christopher Wendel, Fredric D. Wolinsky, Eric D. Foster, Michael M. Merzenich, and Michelle W. Voss. 2020. “Home-Based, Adaptive Cognitive Training for Cognitively Normal Older Adults: Initial Efficacy Trial.” The Journals of Gerontology: Series B 75 (6): 1144–54. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbz073.