This is a partial list of studies that directly demonstrate that computerized cognitive training can improve cognition. There are many other such studies; this list is a sampling.

  1. Adcock RA, Dale C, Fisher M, Aldebot S, Genevsky A, Simpson GV, et al. When top-down meets bottom-up: auditory training enhances verbal memory in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull. 2009 Nov;35(6):1132–41.
  2. Anderson S, Kraus N. Auditory training: evidence for neural plasticity in older adults. Perspectives on Hearing and Hearing Disorders: Research and Diagnostics. 2013;17(1):37–57.
  3. Anderson S, White-Schwoch T, Choi HJ, Kraus N. Training changes processing of speech cues in older adults with hearing loss. Frontiers in systems neuroscience. 2013;7.
  4. Anderson S, White-Schwoch T, Choi HJ, Kraus N. Partial maintenance of auditory-based cognitive training benefits in older adults. Neuropsychologia. 2014 Sep;62:286–96.
  5. Anderson S, White-Schwoch T, Parbery-Clark A, Kraus N. Reversal of age-related neural timing delays with training. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2013;110(11):4357–62.
  6. Anguera JA, Boccanfuso J, Rintoul JL, Al-Hashimi O, Faraji F, Janowich J, et al. Video game training enhances cognitive control in older adults. Nature. 2013;501(7465):97–101.
  7. Au J, Sheehan E, Tsai N, Duncan GJ, Buschkuehl M, Jaeggi SM. Improving fluid intelligence with training on working memory: a meta-analysis. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. 2014;1–12.
  8. Bailey H, Dagenbach D, Jennings JM. The locus of the benefits of repetition-lag memory training. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition. 2011;18(5):577–93.
  9. Ball K, Berch DB, Helmers KF, Jobe JB, Leveck MD, Marsiske M, et al. Effects of cognitive training interventions with older adults: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2002;288(18):2271.
  10. Ball K, Edwards JD, Ross LA, McGwin Jr. G. Cognitive training decreases motor vehicle collision involvement of older drivers. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2010 Nov;58(11):2107–13.
  11. Ball K, Edwards JD, Ross LA. The impact of speed of processing training on cognitive and everyday functions. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2007;62(Special Issue 1):19.
  12. Ball KK, Ross LA, Roth DL, Edwards JD. Speed of processing training in the ACTIVE study: how much is needed and who benefits? J Aging Health. 2013 Dec 1;25(8 suppl):65S – 84S.
  13. Ball KK, Beard BL, Roenker DL, Miller RL, Griggs DS. Age and visual search: expanding the useful field of view. JOSA A. 1988;5(12):2210–9.
  14. Barnes DE, Yaffe K, Belfor N, Jagust WJ, DeCarli C, Reed BR, et al. Computer-based cognitive training for mild cognitive impairment: results from a pilot randomized, controlled trial. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2009 Sep;23(3):205–10.
  15. Basak C, Boot WR, Voss MW, Kramer AF. Can training in a real-time strategy video game attenuate cognitive decline in older adults? Psychology and Aging. 2008;23(4):765.
  16. Belchior P, Marsiske M, Sisco SM, Yam A, Bavelier D, Ball K, et al. Video game training to improve selective visual attention in older adults. Computers in Human Behavior. 2013 Jul;29(4):1318–24.
  17. Bell MD, Zito W, Greig T, Wexler BE. Neurocognitive enhancement therapy with vocational services: work outcomes at two-year follow-up. Schizophrenia research. 2008;105(1-3):18–29.
  18. Bell M, Bryson G, Wexler BE. Cognitive remediation of working memory deficits: durability of training effects in severely impaired and less severely impaired schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 2003;108(2):101–9.
  19. Bell M, Bryson G, Greig T, Corcoran C, Wexler BE. Neurocognitive enhancement therapy with work therapy: effects on neuropsychological test performance. Archives of General Psychiatry. 2001;58(8):763–8.
  20. Bell M, Fiszdon J, Greig T, Wexler B, Bryson G. Neurocognitive enhancement therapy with work therapy in schizophrenia: 6-month follow-up of neuropsychological performance. JRRD. 2007;44(5):761.
  21. Bell M, Zito W, Greig T, Wexler BE. Neurocognitive enhancement therapy and competitive employment in schizophrenia: effects on clients with poor community functioning. American journal of psychiatric rehabilitation. 2008;11(2):109–22.
  22. Bell MD, Bryson GJ, Greig TC, Fiszdon JM, Wexler BE. Neurocognitive enhancement therapy with work therapy: productivity outcomes at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2005 Dec;42(6):829–38.
  23. Bell MD, Fiszdon J, Bryson G, Wexler BE. Effects of neurocognitive enhancement therapy in schizophrenia: normalisation of memory performance. Cognitive neuropsychiatry. 2004;9(3):199–211.
  24. Berry AS, Zanto TP, Clapp WC, Hardy JL, Delahunt PB, Mahncke HW, et al. The influence of perceptual training on working memory in older adults. PLoS ONE. 2010;5(7):e11537.
  25. Biagianti B, Vinogradov S. Computerized cognitive training targeting brain plasticity in schizophrenia. Progress in Brain Research. 2012;207:301–26.
  26. Boller B, Jennings JM, Dieudonné B, Verny M, Ergis A-M. Recollection training and transfer effects in Alzheimer’s disease: effectiveness of the repetition-lag procedure. Brain and cognition. 2012;78(2):169–77.
  27. Bowie CR, Grossman M, Gupta M, Oyewumi L, Harvey PD. Cognitive remediation in schizophrenia: efficacy and effectiveness in patients with early versus long-term course of illness. Early intervention in psychiatry. 2014;8(1):32–8.
  28. Bowie CR, McGurk SR, Mausbach B, Patterson TL, Harvey PD. Combined cognitive remediation and functional skills training for schizophrenia: effects on cognition, functional competence, and real-world behavior. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2012;169(7):710–8.
  29. Connor ML, Hudak EM, Edwards JD. Cognitive Speed of Processing Training Can Promote Community Mobility among Older Adults: A Brief Review. Journal of Aging Research. 2011 May 22;2011:e430802.
  30. DeGutis JM, Van Vleet TM. Tonic and phasic alertness training: a novel behavioral therapy to improve spatial and non-spatial attention in patients with hemispatial neglect. Front Hum Neurosci. 2010 Aug 24;4.
  31. Edwards JD, Delahunt PB, Mahncke HW. Cognitive speed of processing training delays driving cessation. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2009 Dec;64(12):1262–7.
  32. Edwards JD, Myers C, Ross LA, Roenker DL, Cissell GM, McLaughlin AM, et al. The longitudinal impact of cognitive speed of processing training on driving mobility. Gerontologist. 2009 Aug;49(4):485–94.
  33. Edwards JD, Wadley VG, Myers RS, Roenker DL, Cissell GM, Ball KK. Transfer of a speed of processing intervention to near and far cognitive functions. Gerontology. 2002;48:329–40.
  34. Edwards JD, Wadley VG, Vance DE, Wood K, Roenker DL, Ball KK. The impact of speed of processing training on cognitive and everyday performance. Aging & Mental Health. 2005;9(3):262–71.
  35. Edwards JD, Ruva CL, O’Brien JL, Haley CB, Lister JJ. An examination of mediators of the transfer of cognitive speed of processing training to everyday functional performance. Psychology and Aging. 2013;28(2):314–21.
  36. Edwards JD, Valdés EG, Peronto C, Castora-Binkley M, Alwerdt J, Andel R, et al. The efficacy of InSight cognitive training to improve useful field of view performance: a brief report. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2013 Nov 8;gbt113.
  37. Elliott AF, O’Connor ML, Edwards JD. Cognitive speed of processing training in older adults with visual impairments. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2014 Sep 1;34(5):509–18.
  38. Ellis ML, Edwards JD, Peterson L, Roker R, Athilingam P. Effects of cognitive speed of processing training among older adults with heart failure. J Aging Health. 2014 Mar 28.
  39. Fisher M, Holland C, Merzenich MM, Vinogradov S. Using neuroplasticity-based auditory training to improve verbal memory in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2009 Jul;166(7):805–11.
  40. Fisher M, Holland C, Subramaniam K, Vinogradov S. Neuroplasticity-based cognitive training in schizophrenia: an interim report on the effects 6 months later. Schizophr Bull. 2010 Jul;36(4):869–79.
  41. Fisher M, Loewy R, Carter C, Lee A, Ragland JD, Niendam T, et al. Neuroplasticity-based auditory training via laptop computer improves cognition in young individuals with recent onset schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull. 2014 Jan 20;sbt232.
  42. Fisher M, Loewy R, Hardy K, Schlosser D, Vinogradov S. Cognitive interventions targeting brain plasticity in the prodromal and early phases of schizophrenia. Annual review of clinical psychology. 2013;9:435–63.
  43. Fiszdon JM, Bryson GJ, Wexler BE, Bell MD. Durability of cognitive remediation training in schizophrenia: performance on two memory tasks at 6-month and 12-month follow-up. Psychiatry research. 2004;125(1):1–7.
  44. Gates NJ, Valenzuela M, Sachdev PS, Singh NA, Baune BT, Brodaty H, et al. Study of Mental Activity and Regular Training (SMART) in at risk individuals: A randomised double blind, sham controlled, longitudinal trial. BMC geriatrics. 2011;11(1):19.
  45. Gigler KL, Blomeke K, Shatil E, Weintraub S, Reber PJ. Preliminary evidence for the feasibility of at-home online cognitive training with older adults. Gerontechnology. 2013 Oct 18;12(1).
  46. González-Palau F, Franco M, Bamidis P, Losada R, Parra E, Papageorgiou SG, et al. The effects of a computer-based cognitive and physical training program in a healthy and mildly cognitive impaired aging sample. Aging & mental health. 2014;(ahead-of-print):1–9.
  47. Greig TC, Zito W, Wexler BE, Fiszdon J, Bell MD. Improved cognitive function in schizophrenia after one year of cognitive training and vocational services. Schizophr Res. 2007 Nov;96(1-3):156–61.
  48. Haimov I, Shatil E. Cognitive training improves sleep quality and cognitive function among older adults with insomnia. PLoS ONE. 2013 Apr 5;8(4):e61390.
  49. Hooker CI, Bruce L, Fisher M, Verosky SC, Miyakawa A, D’Esposito M, et al. The influence of combined cognitive plus social-cognitive training on amygdala response during face emotion recognition in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging. 2013;213(2):99–107.
  50. Hooker CI, Bruce L, Fisher M, Verosky SC, Miyakawa A, Vinogradov S. Neural activity during emotion recognition after combined cognitive plus social cognitive training in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia research. 2012.
  51. Howren MB, Vander Weg MW, Wolinsky FD. Computerized cognitive training interventions to improve neuropsychological outcomes: evidence and future directions. Journal of comparative effectiveness research. 2014;3(2):145–54.
  52. Jennings J, Jacoby L. Improving memory in older adults: training recollection. PNRH. 2003 Sep;13(4):417–40.
  53. Jennings JM, Webster LM, Kleykamp BA, Dagenbach D. Recollection training and transfer effects in older adults: successful use of a repetition-lag procedure. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition. 2005;12(3):278–98.
  54. Jobe JB, Smith DM, Ball K, Tennstedt SL, Marsiske M, Willis SL, et al. ACTIVE: A cognitive intervention trial to promote independence in older adults. Controlled Clinical Trials. 2001;22(4):453–79.
  55. Jones RN, Marsiske M, Ball K, Rebok G, Willis SL, Morris JN, et al. The ACTIVE cognitive training interventions and trajectories of performance among older adults. J Aging Health. 2013 Dec 1;25(8 suppl):186S – 208S.
  56. Karbach J, Verhaeghen P. Making working memory work: a meta-analysis of executive-control and working memory training in older adults. Psychol Sci. 2014 Nov;25(11):2027–37.
  57. Keefe RSE, Vinogradov S, Medalia A, Buckley PF, Caroff SN, D’Souza DC, et al. Feasibility and pilot efficacy results from the multisite cognitive remediation in the schizophrenia trials network (CRSTN) randomized controlled trial. J Clin Psychiatry. 2012 Aug;73(7):1016–22.
  58. Keefe RSE, Vinogradov S, Medalia A, Silverstein SM, Bell MD, Dickinson D, et al. Report from the working group conference on multisite trial design for cognitive remediation in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull. 2011 Sep 1;37(5):1057–65.
  59. Kraus N, Anderson S. Hearing matters: in older adults, the brain can still be trained to hear in noise. The Hearing Journal. 2013;66(5):32.
  60. Kraus N, Anderson S. Better speech processing in smaller amplitudes. The Hearing Journal. 2014;67(3):48.
  61. Kraus N. Biological impact of music and software-based auditory training. Journal of communication disorders. 2012;45(6):403–10.
  62. Kurtz MM, Seltzer JC, Fujimoto M, Shagan DS, Wexler BE. Predictors of change in life skills in schizophrenia after cognitive remediation. Schizophrenia research. 2009;107(2):267–74.
  63. Kurtz MM, Seltzer JC, Shagan DS, Thime WR, Wexler BE. Computer-assisted cognitive remediation in schizophrenia: what is the active ingredient? Schizophrenia research. 2007;89(1):251–60.
  64. Kurtz MM, Wexler BE, Fujimoto M, Shagan DS, Seltzer JC. Symptoms versus neurocognition as predictors of change in life skills in schizophrenia after outpatient rehabilitation. Schizophrenia research. 2008;102(1):303–11.
  65. Lampit A, Hallock H, Moss R, Kwok S, Rosser M, Lukjanenko M, et al. The timecourse of global cognitive gains from supervised computer-assisted cognitive training: a randomised, active-controlled trial in elderly with multiple dementia risk factors.
  66. Lebowitz MS, Dams-O’Connor K, Cantor JB. Feasibility of computerized brain plasticity-based cognitive training after traumatic brain injury. Journal of rehabilitation research and development. 2012;49(10):1547–56.
  67. Li R, Polat U, Makous W, Bavelier D. Enhancing the contrast sensitivity function through action video game training. Nat Neurosci. 2009 May;12(5):549–51.
  68. Li R, Polat U, Scalzo F, Bavelier D. Reducing backward masking through action game training. J Vis. 2010;10(14).
  69. Loewenstein DA, Acevedo A, Czaja SJ, Duara R. Cognitive rehabilitation of mildly impaired alzheimer disease patients on cholinesterase inhibitors. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 2004 Jul;12(4):395–402.
  70. Mahncke HW, Bronstone A, Merzenich MM. Brain plasticity and functional losses in the aged: scientific bases for a novel intervention. Prog Brain Res. 2006;157:81–109.
  71. Mahncke HW, Connor BB, Appelman J, Ahsanuddin ON, Hardy JL, Wood RA, et al. Memory enhancement in healthy older adults using a brain plasticity-based training program: a randomized, controlled study. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2006 Aug 15;103(33):12523–8.
  72. Miller KJ, Dye RV, Kim J, Jennings JL, O’Toole E, Wong J, et al. Effect of a computerized brain exercise program on cognitive performance in older adults. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 2013 Jul;21(7):655–63.
  73. Mishra J, Rolle C, Gazzaley A. Neural plasticity underlying visual perceptual learning in aging. Brain research. 2014.
  74. Morimoto SS, Wexler BE, Liu J, Hu W, Seirup J, Alexopoulos GS. Neuroplasticity-based computerized cognitive remediation for treatment-resistant geriatric depression. Nature Communications. 2014;5.
  75. Murthy NV, Mahncke H, Wexler BE, Maruff P, Inamdar A, Zucchetto M, et al. Computerized cognitive remediation training for schizophrenia: an open label, multi-site, multinational methodology study. schizophrenia Research. 2012;139(1):87–91.
  76. Nahum M, Fisher M, Loewy R, Poelke G, Ventura J, Nuechterlein KH, et al. A novel, online social cognitive training program for young adults with schizophrenia: A pilot study. Schizophrenia Research: Cognition. 2014;1(1):e11–9.
  77. Nahum M, Lee H, Merzenich MM. Principles of neuroplasticity-based rehabilitation. Progress in Brain Research. Elsevier; 2013. p. 141–71.
  78. O’Brien JL, Edwards JD, Maxfield ND, Peronto CL, Williams VA, Lister JJ. Cognitive training and selective attention in the aging brain: an electrophysiological study. Clinical Neurophysiology. 2013;124(11):2198–208.
  79. Panizzutti R, Hamilton SP, Vinogradov S. Genetic correlate of cognitive training response in schizophrenia. Neuropharmacology. 2013;64:264–7.
  80. Peretz C, Korczyn AD, Shatil E, Aharonson V, Birnboim S, Giladi N. Computer-based, personalized cognitive training versus classical computer games: a randomized double-blind prospective trial of cognitive stimulation. Neuroepidemiology. 2011;36(2):91–9.
  81. Polat U, Schor C, Tong J-L, Zomet A, Lev M, Yehezkel O, et al. Training the brain to overcome the effect of aging on the human eye. Sci Rep. 2012 Feb 23;2.
  82. Polat U. Making perceptual learning practical to improve visual functions. Vision Research. 2009 Oct 29;49(21):2566–73.
  83. Popov T, Rockstroh B, Weisz N, Elbert T, Miller GA. Adjusting brain dynamics in schizophrenia by means of perceptual and cognitive training. PLoS ONE. 2012;7(7):e39051.
  84. Popov T, Jordanov T, Rockstroh B, Elbert T, Merzenich MM, Miller GA. Specific cognitive training normalizes auditory sensory gating in schizophrenia: a randomized trial. Biological Psychiatry. 2011;69(5):465–71.
  85. Preiss M, Shatil E, Cermakova R, Cimermanova D, Ram I. Personalized cognitive training in unipolar and bipolar disorder: a study of cognitive functioning. Front Hum Neurosci. 2013 May 13;7.
  86. Pressler SJ, Therrien B, Riley PL, Chou C-C, Ronis DL, Koelling TM, et al. Nurse-enhanced memory intervention in heart failure: the MEMOIR study. Journal of cardiac failure. 2011;17(10):832–43.
  87. Rebok GW, Ball K, Guey LT, Jones RN, Kim H-Y, King JW, et al. Ten-year effects of the advanced cognitive training for independent and vital elderly cognitive training trial on cognition and everyday functioning in older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2014;62(1):16–24.
  88. Roenker DL, Cissell GM, Ball KK, Wadley VG, Edwards JD. Speed-of-processing and driving simulator training result in improved driving performance. Human Factors. 2003;45(2):218.
  89. Rosen AC, Sugiura L, Kramer JH, Whitfield-Gabrieli S, Gabrieli JD. Cognitive training changes hippocampal function in mild cognitive impairment: a pilot study. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease. 2011;26:349–57.
  90. Sacks S, Fisher M, Garrett C, Alexander P, Holland C, Rose D, et al. Combining computerized social cognitive training with neuroplasticity-based auditory training in schizophrenia. Clinical schizophrenia & related psychoses. 2013;7(2):78–86A.
  91. Scalf PE, Colcombe SJ, McCarley JS, Erickson KI, Alvarado M, Kim JS, et al. The neural correlates of an expanded functional field of view. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2007;62(Special Issue 1):32.
  92. Sharpe C, Holup AA, Hansen KE, Edwards JD. Does self-efficacy affect responsiveness to cognitive speed of processing training? J Aging Health. 2014 Aug 1;26(5):786–806.
  93. Shatil E, Metzer A, Horvitz O, Miller A. Home-based personalized cognitive training in MS patients: A study of adherence and cognitive performance. NeuroRehabilitation. 2010 Jan 1;26(2):143–53.
  94. Shatil E, Mikulecká J, Bellotti F, Bureš V. Novel television-based cognitive training improves working memory and executive function. PLoS ONE. 2014 Jul 3;9(7):e101472.
  95. Shatil E. Does combined cognitive training and physical activity training enhance cognitive abilities more than either alone? A four-condition randomized controlled trial among healthy older adults. Front Aging Neurosci. 2013;5:8.
  96. Smith GE, Housen P, Yaffe K, Ruff R, Kennison RF, Mahncke HW, et al. A cognitive training program based on principles of brain plasticity: results from the Improvement in Memory with Plasticity-based Adaptive Cognitive Training (IMPACT) study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009 Apr;57(4):594–603.
  97. Smith-Ray RL, Hughes SL, Prohaska TR, Little DM, Jurivich DA, Hedeker D. Impact of cognitive training on balance and gait in older adults. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences. 2013;gbt097.
  98. Smith-Ray RL, Makowski-Woidan B, Hughes SL. A randomized trial to measure the impact of a community-based cognitive training intervention on balance and gait in cognitively intact black older adults. Health Education & Behavior. 2014;41(1 suppl):62S – 69S.
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  100. Subramaniam K, Luks TL, Fisher M, Simpson GV, Nagarajan S, Vinogradov S. Computerized cognitive training restores neural activity within the reality monitoring network in schizophrenia. Neuron. 2012;73(4):842–53.
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  107. Vance DE, Fazeli PL, Ross LA, Wadley VG, Ball KK. Speed of processing training with middle-age and older adults with HIV: a pilot study. Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. 2012 Nov;23(6):500–10.
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  111. Vinogradov S, Fisher M, Warm H, Holland C, Kirshner MA, Pollock BG. The cognitive cost of anticholinergic burden: Decreased response to cognitive training in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2009;166(9):1055.
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  131. Zelinski EM. Far transfer in cognitive training of older adults. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience. 2009 Jan 1;27(5):455–71.
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